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Troguloidea Sundevall 1833

Axel Schönhofer and Marshal Hedin
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taxon links [up-->]Trogulidae [up-->]Nipponopsalididae [up-->]Dicranolasmatidae [up-->]Nemastomatidae [down<--]Dyspnoi Interpreting the tree
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Containing group: Dyspnoi


The superfamily Troguloidea is defined as group of Dyspnoi with a penis operated by two muscles (Martens 1976). The complex clavate hairs on the palps are found in many taxa and may serve as an additional defining feature. In Dicranolasma these hairs are only present in juveniles and are lost in the sister group Trogulidae. Troguloidea are further characterized by a female genital morphology with outer circular muscles and aciniform vaginal glands in the ovipositor (Martens et al. 1981; Martens 1986), and by exhibiting a distinctive sternum throughout the group (Hansen & Soerensen 1904).

Taxonomy and Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

Based on „Trogulides“ the definition of Troguloidea dates back to Sundevall (1833) but was finally defined as a superfamily by Martens (1976). The monophyly of this group is also supported by molecular studies (e.g. Giribet et al. 2010). Relationships between families within this group are less well-studied than in the Ischyropsalidoidea. Whether the taxon Dicranolasmatidae should be united with the Trogulidae or retained as separate family was recently discussed by Schönhofer and Martens (2010).

Ecology and Life History

In contrast to Ischyropsalidoidea most Troguloidea include species where adults can be found year round. Adults appear to live longer than a year and generations overlap at least a short time. Some of the larger Balkan Trogulus associated with cool cave habitats are assumed to have a slower growth rate and to live multiple years.


Giribet, G., L. Vogt, A. Pérez González, P. Sharma and A. B. Kury 2010. A multilocus approach to harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) phylogeny with emphasis on biogeography and the systematics of Laniatores. Cladistics 26:408-437.

Hansen, H. J. and W. Sørensen. 1904. On two orders of Arachnida Opiliones, especially the suborder Cyphophthalmi, and Ricinulei, namely the family Cryptostemmatoidae. Cambridge University Press.

Martens, J. 1976. Genitalmorphologie, System und Phylogenie der Weberknechte (Arachnida: Opiliones). Entomologica Germanica, Stuttgart, 3(1/2):51-68.

Martens, J. (1986) Die Grossgliederung der Opiliones und die Evolution der Ordnung (Arachnida). In J. A. Barrientos, ed. Actas X Congreso Internacional de Aracnologia (Jaca, Spain, September 1986), Barcelona 1:289-310.

Martens, J., Hoheisel, U. and M. Götze. 1981. Vergleichende Anatomie der Legeröhren der Opiliones als Beitrag zur Phylogenie der Ordnung (Arachnida). Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Anatomie und Ontogenie der Tiere 105(1):13-76.

Schönhofer, A. L. and J. Martens. 2010. Hidden Mediterranean diversity: Assessing species taxa by molecular phylogeny within the opilionid family Trogulidae (Arachnida, Opiliones). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54(1):59-75.

Sundevall, C.J. 1833. Conspectus Arachnidum. C.F. Berling, Londini Gothorum, Lund, Schweden.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Paranemastoma quadripunctatum
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Identified By Axel Schoenhofer
Sex m
Life Cycle Stage adult
Copyright © 2011 Axel Schönhofer
Scientific Name Dicranolasma pauper
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Identified By Axel Schoenhofer
Life Cycle Stage adult
Copyright © 2011 Axel Schönhofer
Scientific Name Trogulus corcyraeus
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Identified By Axel Schoenhofer
Life Cycle Stage adult
Copyright © 2011 Axel Schönhofer
About This Page

Axel Schönhofer
San Diego States University, San Diego, California, USA

Marshal Hedin
San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Axel Schönhofer at and Marshal Hedin at

Page: Tree of Life Troguloidea Sundevall 1833. Authored by Axel Schönhofer and Marshal Hedin. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Schönhofer , Axel and Marshal Hedin. 2012. Troguloidea Sundevall 1833. Version 08 July 2012 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Troguloidea/60690/2012.07.08 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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