TroguloideaAxel Schönhofer and Marshal Hedin
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The superfamily Troguloidea is defined as group of Dyspnoi with a penis operated by two muscles (Martens 1976). The complex clavate hairs on the palps are found in many taxa and may serve as an additional defining feature. In Dicranolasma these hairs are only present in juveniles and are lost in the sister group Trogulidae. Troguloidea are further characterized by a female genital morphology with outer circular muscles and aciniform vaginal glands in the ovipositor (Martens et al. 1981; Martens 1986), and by exhibiting a distinctive sternum throughout the group (Hansen & Soerensen 1904).
Based on „Trogulides“ the definition of Troguloidea dates back to Sundevall (1833) but was finally defined as a superfamily by Martens (1976). The monophyly of this group is also supported by molecular studies (e.g. Giribet et al. 2010). Relationships between families within this group are less well-studied than in the Ischyropsalidoidea. Whether the taxon Dicranolasmatidae should be united with the Trogulidae or retained as separate family was recently discussed by Schönhofer and Martens (2010).
In contrast to Ischyropsalidoidea most Troguloidea include species where adults can be found year round. Adults appear to live longer than a year and generations overlap at least a short time. Some of the larger Balkan Trogulus associated with cool cave habitats are assumed to have a slower growth rate and to live multiple years.
Giribet, G., L. Vogt, A. Pérez González, P. Sharma and A. B. Kury 2010. A multilocus approach to harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) phylogeny with emphasis on biogeography and the systematics of Laniatores. Cladistics 26:408-437.
Hansen, H. J. and W. Sørensen. 1904. On two orders of Arachnida Opiliones, especially the suborder Cyphophthalmi, and Ricinulei, namely the family Cryptostemmatoidae. Cambridge University Press.
Martens, J. 1976. Genitalmorphologie, System und Phylogenie der Weberknechte (Arachnida: Opiliones). Entomologica Germanica, Stuttgart, 3(1/2):51-68.
Martens, J. (1986) Die Grossgliederung der Opiliones und die Evolution der Ordnung (Arachnida). In J. A. Barrientos, ed. Actas X Congreso Internacional de Aracnologia (Jaca, Spain, September 1986), Barcelona 1:289-310.
Martens, J., Hoheisel, U. and M. Götze. 1981. Vergleichende Anatomie der Legeröhren der Opiliones als Beitrag zur Phylogenie der Ordnung (Arachnida). Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Anatomie und Ontogenie der Tiere 105(1):13-76.
Schönhofer, A. L. and J. Martens. 2010. Hidden Mediterranean diversity: Assessing species taxa by molecular phylogeny within the opilionid family Trogulidae (Arachnida, Opiliones). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54(1):59-75.
Sundevall, C.J. 1833. Conspectus Arachnidum. C.F. Berling, Londini Gothorum, Lund, Schweden.
San Diego States University, San Diego, California, USA
San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Axel Schönhofer at and Marshal Hedin at
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- First online 08 July 2012
- Content changed 08 July 2012
Citing this page:
Schönhofer , Axel and Marshal Hedin. 2012. Troguloidea http://tolweb.org/Troguloidea/60690/2012.07.08 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Version 08 July 2012 (under construction).